Rosenberg Library

2014, Rosenberg Library, Galveston TX. "Galveston Before the Civil War" exhibit. Curated by Eleanor Barton.

Ben C. Stuart papers, MS29-0028. Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas.

  • Slave Ships, Box 2, Folder 1
  • Early Texas Seafarers, 1819-1838, Box 2, Folder 3.
  • Texas African Slave Trade, Box 2, Folder 10.

Henry Howell Williams papers, MS73-0055. Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas.

Samuel May Williams papers, MS23-0002. Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas. (SMWP)

  • Item 23-1329 Thomas F. McKinney to Samuel May Williams. 2 June 1834

McKinney & Williams Company Ledgers, MS22-0249. Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas. (MWL)

Galveston Historical Foundation, Ashton Villa Records (1974-1986), MS86-0007. Rosenberg Library, Galveston, Texas.

  • Obituary: Colonel James Moreau Brown, Box 5, Folder 2. (Census Records)

These records can be viewed by making a free FamilySearch account.

1860 U.S. Census (Slave Schedule) 

1850 U.S. Census (Slave Schedule) 

Galveston County, Texas County Tax Rolls, 1837-1910

The National Archives in Washington, DC; Washington, DC; Slave Manifests of Coastwise Vessels Filed at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1807-1860

Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms, compiled 1874 - 1899, documenting the period 1861 - 1865. Accessed via

Library of Congress: 

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 to 1938.

Journal Articles

Barker, Eugene C. "The African Slave Trade in Texas." The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association 6, No. 2 (October 1902), pp. 145-158.

Frantz, Joe B. "The Mercantile House of McKinney & Williams, Underwriters of the Texas Revolution." Bulletin of the Business Historical Society 26, No. 1 (March 1952), pp. 1-18.

Gleijeses, P.  "Clashing over Cuba: The United States, Spain and Britain, 1853–55." Journal of Latin American Studies, 49(2), (2017) 215-241. doi:10.1017/S0022216X16001450.

Head, David. "Slave Smuggling by Foreign Privateers: The Illegal Slave Trade and the Geopolitics of the Early Republic." Journal of the Early Republic 33, No. 3 (Fall 2013), pp. 433-462.

Kelley, Sean. "Blackbirders and Bozales: African-Born Slaves on the Lower Brazos River of Texas in the Nineteenth Century." Civil War History, Vol. LIV No. 4, Kent State University Press (2008).

Robbins, Fred. "The Origin and Development of the African Slave Trade in Galveston, Texas, and
Surrounding Areas from 1816 to 1836," East Texas Historical Journal 9, No. 2 (1971). Available at:

Shelton, Robert S. “Slavery in a Texas Seaport: The Peculiar Institution in Galveston.” Slavery & Abolition 28, no. 2 (2007): 155–68. doi:10.1080/01440390701427990.

The Portal to Texas History

W. & D. Richardson. Galveston City Directory, 1859-1860, book, 1859; Galveston, Texas. ( accessed July 28, 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History,; crediting Rosenberg Library.

Texas Digital Newspaper Program.

Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas

Bishop, Curtis. “McKinney, Williams and Company.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Harris, Rose M. “Love, James.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Henson, Margaret S. “Williams, Henry Howell.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Hyman, Carolyn. “Hutchings, John Henry.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

Jones, Marie Beth. “Mills, Robert.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Kleiner, Diana J. “Eagle Island Plantation.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

McBee, May Wilson. “Smith, Benjamin Fort.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.

Steen, Ralph W. “Convention of 1833.” Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.


Brazosport Archaeological Society. "Chenango Plantation."

Cohen, Rich. "Pirate City." The Paris Review Issue 201 (Summer 2012)

Dillard, Coshandra. "On this Texas island, pirates kept the Atlantic slave trade going—even after it was abolished." Medium. Published April 10, 2018.

Levinson, Sandra and Franklin Knight. "Sugarcane and the growth of slavery, Cuba." Encyclopaedia Britannica.

"Galveston: Ashton Villa." Texas Independence Trail. Texas Historical Commission.

"Historical Markers." and Company.

"History of Lake Jackson Plantation." Texas Beyond History: The Virtual Museum of Texas' Cultural Heritage.

J. Barto Arnold et al. The Denbigh Project, World Wide Web,
Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas A&M University,1998-2000,

National Park Service. "Battle Detail: Galveston II."


Beasley, Ellen. The Alleys and Back Buildings of Galveston: An Architectural and Social History. College Station: Texas A&M University Press (1996). 

Beasley, Ellen and Stephen Fox. Galveston Architecture Guidebook. Houston: Rice University Press, Galveston Historical Foundation (1996). 

Beckert, Sven and Seth Rockman. Slavery's Capitalism: A New History of American Economic Development. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Henson, Margaret Swett. Samuel May Williams, Early Texas Entrepreneur. Vol. 1st ed. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1976.

Martin, Bonnie. "Slavery's Invisible Engine: Mortgaging Human Property." The Journal of Southern History 76, no. 4 (2010): 817-66. Accessed February 26, 2021.

Oliphant, Ashley and Beth Yarbrough. Jean Laffite Revealed: Unraveling One of America's Longest-Running Mysteries. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2020. 

Torget, Andrew J.. Seeds of Empire (The David J. Weber Series in the New Borderlands History). The University of North Carolina Press. Kindle Edition.

Woodward, Colin Edward. Marching Masters: Slavery, Race and the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2014.